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Markets and the creative paradigm: Identity variability in English-Greek translated promotional material1

Maria Sidiropoulou, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens


The study uses as a starting point a set of value dilemmas traced in corporation management strategies worldwide; these dilemmas can offer a rationale for exploring whether and how automo­bile industry advertising on UK-Greek corporation homepages crea­tively employs values inherent in relevant management strategies. Findings show that automo­bile digital advertising is an eloquent paradigm of cross-cultural variation in entre­pre­neurial communication with clients. The study encourages focus on cultural aspe­cts of commercial material mediation in accounting for variation in the implementation of value dilemmas in intercultural transfer. A tension between global and local cultu­ral variabilities is emerging which highlights the socially aware aspect of innovation. 'Culturalising' eco­no­­­mic life, in terms of raising awareness of culture-specific norms in communication, seems to be of paramount importance in wealth creating environments, as is argued in the conclusion.


Identity, translation, cultural/entrepreneurial value binaries, business, corporations, auto­mobile industry, intercultural communication, hard/soft approaches, creativity, advertising.

1. Values, business and translation

Values are a core issue in the business world. Gallagher (2003), a busi­ness consultant and a scholar in management, confirms the inter­a­ction of values with business environments. Business communication whi­ch cros­ses cultural boundaries intersects with competences required in intercultu­ral communication. Communication competences may be effecti­ve­ly tack­led (and developed) through discourse-focused translation stu­dies.

The present section provides a model of management strategies highlighting certain entrepreneurial value dilemmas, on which the study draws in or­der to account for translation shifts in intercultural transfer. Approa­ches to building a values-driven organisation may be hard- and soft-orien­ted, emphasising different levels of consciousness and world views (Ba­rrett 2006). Occasionally, hard- and soft-oriented approaches to building an or­ga­nisation may merge in corporation-specific ways. “Institutionalized va­lu­es are collectively agreed upon value criteria that apply to role perfor­man­ce” (D'Andrade 2008:123, emphasis in original). Building cross-cultu­ral competence in wealth-creating environments has been assumed to involve awareness of at least six dimensions of cultural diversity, name­ly, univer­sa­lism/particularism, individualism/ communitarianism, spe­ci­ficity/di­ffu­si­on, achieved/ascribed status, inner/outer direction, and sequential/syn­chro­­nous time (Hampden-Turner and Fons Trompenaars 2000:11).


Hard approach

Soft approach


(rules, codes, laws and generalisations)

(exceptions, special circumstances, unique relations)


(personal freedom, human rights, competitiveness)

(social responsibility, harmonious relations, cooperation)


(atomistic, reductive analytic, objective)

(holistic, elaborative synthetic, relational)


Achieved status
(what you’ve done, your track record)

Ascribed status
(who you are, your potential and connections)


Inner direction
(conscience and
convictions are located inside)

Outer direction
(examples and influences are located outside)


Sequential time
(time is a race along a set course)

Synchronous time
(time is a dance of fine coordinations)

Table 1. Dimensions of cultural diversity and related value dilemmas.

The explanatory value of this framework for automobile industry translating lies in that it is business-oriented. The entrepreneurial value dilem­mas in Table 1 draw on research conducted in corporation environments (ra­ther than in broader societal environments) with a sample of forty-six thousand managers from more than forty countries (Hampden-Turner and Fons Trompenaars 2000). The study attempts to examine whether and how entrepreneurial dilemmas, which are claimed to be implemented dif­ferently across corporation cultures, could have any bearing in cross-cul­tu­ral communication of company with client, as manifested through tran­­slation. The assumption in this study has been that different value sets may be favoured across source and target homepages of companies to en­sure effective communication with clients and wealth creation. Awa­re­ness of cross-cultural shifts in real life entrepreneurial meaning transfer is expected to heighten perception of how communicative force of messa­ges may be optimised on the market, doing justice to linguistic and cultu­ral relativity.

An interesting point about the automobile industry, as in many other are­as of advertising (Adab and Valdés 2004), is that linguistic transfer is most frequently an adaptation rather than a close translation, highlighting different sets of values on cross-cultural agendas. Corporations and scholars are aware that blending and reconciling values of dilemmas is an opti­mum strategy for wealth creating. For instance, Hampden-Turner and Fons Trompenaars (2000:10) argue that “where these differences are recon­ci­led whole organizations grow healthier, wealthier, and wiser as a con­sequence.” However, the data show that blending and reconciliation of values may be somewhat 'culturally-informed' and this makes automobile industry material extremely valuable for translational creativity research. Despite blended entrepreneurial approaches to value dimensions globally, hard-sell approaches seem to be favoured in Western companies, with soft-sell approaches rather prevailing in Eastern-origin companies (ibid). The study examines verbal digital communi­cation through UK and Greek homepages of fourteen corporations: 7 randomly selected corporations with western headquarters (Alfa Romeo, Jeep, Mini, Renault, Seat, Volvo, Volks­wagen) and another 7, also randomly selected, with Eastern headquar­ters (Daihatsu, Hyundai, Mazda, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Subaru, Toyota). Selecting data from Western/Eastern-origin companies is a methodological decision made on the grounds that the origin of the company may be ex­plaining emergence of values on homepages. As will be shown in secti­on 3, awareness and management of cultural diversity in cross-cultural mea­ning transfer is highly significant in boosting translational creativity and the communicative force of messages in the services sector. This is a point that tallies with findings by scholars focusing on economic processes in the services sector. As Flew suggests (2005:349), economic processes inevitably possess a cultural dimension, particularly with the growth of the services sector, where economic transactions are often more directly rela­ted to interpersonal relations and communicative practice.

Measurement of value intensity in Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars' (2000) study includes Greece in value pairs 1, 2 and 3 (Table 1). With the rest of the value pairs, Greece is not included in the measurement, probably for lack of adequate evidence. The study attempts to trace all value pairs in automobile industry advertising across English-Greek to portray how creativity may interact with social awareness cross-culturally.

Although grammatical or cohesive variation across versions can be a highly rich resource for drawing conclusions about cultural variabilities, the fo­cus in this study is rather on lexical items and/or pieces of information, which are assumed to implement the abstract notion of 'value' in the Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars model, in terms of linguistic manife­sta­tions in the parallel text versions. Lexical items or phrases which are added to, or 'censored' from, parallel text versions are assumed to be hi­gh­ly instrumental in meeting pragmatically relevant audience needs in cross-cultural meaning-making (e.g. through considering what might be pragmatically 'relevant' across cultures) and may be more integral to crea­­tivity than grammatical structures and cohesive shifts, because they assume a rather open-ended set of options which can creatively reshape messages.

As in all multimodal communication, visual material accompanying text samples may be extremely useful in complementing implementation of variabilities cross-culturally (Pan 2015), but the analysis in this study confines itself to verbal material, namely headers and main bodies of advertising texts, traced on main or subsidiary pages of websites. Visual ma­terial would be extremely worth exploring for the cultural insights it carries and the intercultural differences it may highlight, but it needs a diversified ap­proach to the task, and is thus outside the scope of this research.

2. Creativity and value dichotomies in advertising

Promotional material has attracted the attention of translation scholars (Smi­th 2002, Adab and Valdés 2004, Chiaro 2004, Chen 2014, Chen, Qiu and Wang 2013, De Mooij 2004, Ho 2004, Kefala and Sidiropoulou 2016,  Munday 2004, Sidiropoulou 1998, 2008a/b, Theocharous 2014, Tuna 2004) and strategies were shown to vary with product category within the same culture, hence the focus on automobile industry in this study.

Creativity has been approached in various ways and from various disciplines, namely, behavioural, clinical, cognitive, cross-cultural, developmen­tal, educational, genetic, organisational, psychoanalytic, psychometrics and social (Creativity Research Journal online). Interdisciplinary research is particularly welcome in journals and periodicals focused on creativity. Advertising may potentially provide linguistic evidence relevant to a co­gniti­ve perspective into creativity and advertisement translation seems to intersect with cross-cultural aspects of it. The study attempts to unveil patterns of value shifts which manifest the translators' creative task in renegotiating entrepreneurial communication with the client cross-cultu­rally.

Perceptions of creativity may vary cross-culturally. In considering Western and Eastern culture perceptions of creativity, Lubart (2010) suggests that Western cultures seem to focus more on the product and conceptualise creativity as a linear process, whereas Eastern cultures seem to focus on the process conceptualising it as cyclic: “[i]t involves connecting to a larger reality, reconfiguring or rediscovering existing elements.” Managing corporate and societal values in a target text is a creative task, and assumes a cyclical notion of creativity, which takes into consideration the lar­ger reality of corporate and societal value priorities.

Below are instances of value shifts across English-Greek, which holistically highlight divergent thinking on the part of mediators and the cyclic aspect of creativity in translation performance, by showing the significance translation practitioners assign to cultural diversity in communicating with cli­e­nts. Analysis shows that translation practice may creatively shift hard/ soft approach values in text versions, to amplify the communicative force of messages. Examples below show instances of shifts across ver­sions along the dilemmas of 'universalism/particularism,' 'individualism/communitarianism,' specificity/diffusion,' 'achieved/ascribed status,' 'inner/outer di­re­cti­on' and 'sequential/synchronous time.'

2.1 Universalism vs. particularism

Although universalist values do appear in the sample, the genre of commercial advertising is expected to major on particularism, as it is motiva­ted to promote items as distinctive and incomparable, in an attempt to high­light “unique exceptional forms of distinction” (Hampden-Turner and Trom­penaars 2000:14). The fragments below manifest universalist and particularist communicative intentions on the part of content owners. Re­semblance is a universalist value, difference is a particularist one.



Can you see the resemblance? From the iconic seven-slot grille to an SUV with real presence, there's no doubting that the Renegade has Jeep® DNA.

SEE THE DIFFERENCE. There's more than one way to experience the Baleno. See what our different models have to offer and find the right one for you.

DISTINCTIVE - FEEL THE DIFFERENCE. Why not discover the new shape of the exhaust tail pipes, leather steering wheel and darkened treatment for the headlights which can be found in the New Alfa Giulietta.

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars argue that in business and industry, “[t]he clash between Universalism and Particularism takes many forms. [...] One example is the historic clash between scientific management, a most universalist approach to business [...], and the human relations movement” (2000:26, emphasis added). In advertising, this may be mani­fe­sted through an intention to develop a core competence in communication or “getting close to the customer” (2000:28). For instance, the UK Suba­ru-Forester homepage includes a section (“What people say”) infor­ming pro­­spective clients what owners of Subaru cars say. This section does not appear on the Greek homepage: deleting this informal aspect of commu­ni­cation is taken as neglect of a particularist value in the target environ­ment, in favour of universalism. Such shifts confirm the re-writing aspect of advertisement translation process.


What People Say
“The 2.0D XC Premium with the CVT gearbox gives a really smooth quiet drive, almost like a magic carpet with...” - See more at:



In a similar fashion, the UK homepage of Nissan-Pulsar encourages clients to sample former/current customer feedback featured on their webpage. The Greek version does not, probably because international evidence may not be as relevant, in the sense that living conditions and needs often differ considerably on the global stage, or because automobile industry in Gree­ce may not have exploited this source of 'authority' yet. Higher power distance between advertiser and customers was shown to be preferred in the Greek version of translated advertisements (Sidiropoulou 2008b) and thus customer feedback may rather be dismissed as informal information. In any case, international websites often localise material and scholars have identified “significant differences in the prototypical macrostructures of original and localised texts, as well as an impact on their terminology and phra­seology” (Jiménez-Crespo 2011 online). Scholars have also been con­ce­r­ned with whether current industry favours internationalised strategies vs. adapted localisations (ibid).


Click here for genuine customer feedback and impartial reviews. Find out how Nissan owners rate their cars – and even ask them for helpful advice.



Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars have measured the extent to which certain cultures may be universalist or particularist by eliciting responses from people with reference to a particular dilemma. They asked questions on everyday issues and categorised responses as to whether they favoured the hard- or soft-oriented value of the dilemma. They found that the UK scores relatively high (70, highest score 90 by Norway) on the universalist/particularist scale, and Greece scores relatively low (38, lowest sco­re 10). Although the present study does not draw on questionnaires or any crowd sourcing techniques, it attempts to examine in what way cross-cultural automobile industry interaction with client displays tendencies observed in Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars' measurement of value intensity. The assumption is that cross-cultural automobile promotional material may show otherwise. For instance, a closer look at the data set does not seem to verify Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars' measurement of the universalist/particularist dilemma in automobile industry promo­tio­nal material, namely that the UK scores 70 and Greece 38. Greek seems to be much higher on universalism in the sample, neglecting quite a few of the particularist values favoured on the English homepage. Evidently, gen­re-specific translation evidence may reshape perception of cultural pre­fe­re­nce intensity with respect to value dilemmas, within the same lan­gu­a­ge pair. Further research may be necessary for scholars to conclude that cer­tain values (e.g. hard-oriented ones) may be prioritised in wealth crea­ting environments, within the same language, which otherwise would have favou­red soft-oriented approaches to value dilemmas.

Particularism foregrounds passion: “[p]articularism is also involved in our intimate and passionate relationships” (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 2000:22). As shown in example 3, the value of passion and desire is favoured in the English version of a Renault Clio ad, which does not survi­ve in Greek (the passion item is eliminated from the Greek heading). The pun Be moved in English further contributes to the passion reading throu­gh appeal to emotions. A particularist value in the Greek version is that of customisation (εξατομίκευση). The Greek version majors on technology (a universalist value).


CLIO. Inspired by passion. BE MOVED, NOT DRIVEN.
The Renault Clio makes hearts beat faster. EXPLORE CLIO.
An object of desire [...], Efficient engines [...], Connect your world [...], Length, height, width [...].


CLIO. Ανακαλύψτε το.
Χρώματα [...], Έντυπα [...], Εντυπωσιακή σχεδίαση [...], Πρακτικό και φιλικό [...], Κινητήρες με τεχνολογική υπεροχή [...], Multimedia [...], 5 Εuro αστέρων NCAP [...], Εκδόσεις & Εξοπλισμός Εξατομίκευση [...], Ασφάλεια [...]

(BT) CLIO. Discover it.
Colours [...], Promotional material [...], Impressive design [...] Practical and friendly, […] Technologically superior engines [...] Multimedia [...] 5 star Euro NCAP [...], Versions and Equipment [...], Customisation [...] Safety [...]

2.2 Individualism vs. communitarianism

Individualism vs. communitarianism is another dilemma for any business unit or culture. Individualism assumes competition, self-reliance, self-interest, while communitarianism assumes cooperation, social concern, altrui­sm (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 2000).

Individualism seeks to locate the origins of value in the creative, feeling, in­qui­ring, and discovering person who seeks fulfillment [...]. Communitarianism seeks to locate the origins of value within the social discourse of the living society, which nurtures, educates, and takes responsibility for the spirit engen­dered among its members. (2000:69-70)

An experiment on how indivi­dual freedom is valued gave the UK a 61% and Greece a 46%, on a scale from 89% to 30% (ibid).

The author's insight into Greek and evidence from other product categories verify that advertising discourse in Greek favours communitarian va­lues. Collectivism was shown to be preferred in the Greek version of a set of 26 English-Greek advertisement pairs (Sidiropoulou 2008b); there was an evaluation intention on the part of the Greek advertiser, manifesting concern for facilitating 'in-groups' with processing, a communitarian value. Concern for in-groups is a positive politeness device (Sifianou 1992) and ma­y be manifested in discourse through a wide range of devices. For instance, the slogan on the front cover of the Greek version of the 2016 IKEA catalogue reshapes the verbal message to favour a communitarian value: Ιt is the little things that matter vs. Ζούμε μαζί όμορφες στιγμές (we live wonderful moments together), 19/8/2016. However, in automo­bile industry, it is interesting for readers to see how the family value dis­ap­­pears from the Greek version in TT4, although the car is originally meant to be a family car. Instead drivers are assumed to be on their own in the Greek version, with Nissan Pulsar presented as “an ideal companion for safe driving” (TT4). The individualistic gloss may be manifested throu­gh the item σχεδιασμένο για να ελκύει τα βλέμματα (designed to attract at­ten­tion), which heightens driver self-confidence.




Pulsar's best-in-class rear legroom and safety features makes it the perfect family car – but don’t just take our word for it...




Family references are also eliminated from the Greek version of the Hyundai i20 car. Instead of family references, the Greek version favours self-reliance (individualism) and self-confidence, thus heightening awareness of independence, wealth and recognition.


QUALITY THROUGH EVERY DETAIL. All New i20 changes everything [...]
Whether it’s the feel of quality materials, the amount of space or clever features, the i20 offers a number of ways to make your driving environment as relaxed as possible.
The i20 is fitted with a wealth of features to keep you and your passengers protected. [...]


Αυτοπεποίθηση στο δρόμο.
Το νέο i20 έχει ακόμη πιο δυναμικό και κομψό εμπρόσθιο μέρος [...]
-- ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑ. Προστασία με 6 στάνταρ αερόσακους [...]

(BT) Self-confidence on the road. The new i20 has even more dynamic and sleek front [...]
-- SAFETY. Protection with 6 standard airbags [...]

The same holds for the next example from the Volvo-S60 Cross Country homepage. The Greek version majors on individualistic, rather than commu­­n­i­tarian, values (ξεχωρίζει από το πλήθος/stands out from the crowd) in TT6, which does not appear in the English version.




Σουηδική πολυτέλεια με περιπετειώδες πνεύμα - αυτό το σπορ σεντάν ξεχωρίζει από το πλήθος. [...]

Swedish luxury with adventurous spirit - this sport sedan stands out from the crowd. [...]

Automobile industry translation practice does not seem to verify the claim that Greece scores lower than the UK on the individualism-communitarianism scale, although this may be true of other product type ads, in interpersonal com­­muni­cation (Sifianou 1992), etc. It is as if, for luxury items such as cars, individualistic concerns carry a stronger persuasive force, as they boost an image of personal success and unfettered economic or other freedom. Sub-generic conventions in the advertising genre seem to be integral to discourse strategising, in real life translation practice.

2.3 Specificity vs. diffusion

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars trace the origin of the dilemma as follows: much of the preference, they claim, relates to the Protestant Refor­mation of the 16th and 17th century. “Catholicism was diffuse, picture­s­que, multi­sen­sual, passionate, elaborate, mysterious, and romantic [...] Pro­testantism was specific, verbal, literal, emotionally controlled, spare, plain speaking, and classic” (2000:123). In measuring the specifici­ty-diffusion dilemma, Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars attribute the UK a 82% and Greece a 45%, in a range between 90% and 10%.

In business and industry, specificity en­tails for a company to be seen as “a system designed to perform functions and tasks in an efficient way” (2000:125). Diffusion would see a company as “a group of people working together [...]. The functioning is dependent on these rela­ti­ons” (2000: 126).

Another manifestation of the dilemma diffuseness/specificity is realised throu­gh conceptualising the corporation as an organism or as a machine, respectively. Diffuseness conceptualises a company as “a living system with the capacity to grow, unfold, and realize the information within its DNA” (2000:146). See for instance Renegate has Jeep DNA in 2.1. The alternative specificity metaphor is that a corporation is a machine: it “consists of specific, replaceable parts, so if any part, human or mechanical, misfunctions, it should be replaced with a more reliable component” (2000:145).

Diffuseness would tally with positive politeness (e.g. favouring interpersonal proximity, rather than distance) in communication. Greek may occa­si­onally prefer positive politeness patterns in some genres (Sifianou 1992), and a clear preference for specificity. The 'uncertainty avoidance' feature in the Greek versions of advertisements (Sidiropoulou 2008b) is a manife­sta­tion of the specificity value in the Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars model (2000). Examples below show instances of specificity shifts introdu­ced in the Greek versions of automobile industry ads.

On a cultural level, the difference is also manifested through a different conceptualisation of public and private space. Hampden-Turner and Trompe­naars (2000) refer to public and private space as two concentric circles with the private circle inside the public one. While the outer 'public space' cir­cle may be invariable, the inner 'private space' circle varies cross-culturally between small and big manifestations of it: there are cultures which seem to prefer a small private space, which leaves enough public space open, and others which assume larger private space, which leaves less pub­lic space available. Specificity favours large public space and small private one, diffuseness favours small pub­lic space and large private one (ibid). This is probably why the UK Nissan Pulsar and Hyundai i20 advertise­ments assume large private space which includes family (diffuseness), while the Greek version assumes small private space with the Greek Nis­san Pulsar drivers solely accompa­nied by their cars as ideal companions (individualism).

In example 7, neglecting the organism metaphor in Greek entails specificity (ST7, see muscular stance)2. Weight measure­ment is introduced in the Mazda-MX5 advertisement (TT7) as a specificity index.


Its muscular stance and piercing LED headlights provide presence on the road. [...]
The first Mazda MX-5 built with SKYACTIV Technology, it's significantly lighter than the previous generation, with a sleeker, more rigid body and the lowest centre of gravity to date


-- [...]
Το αρχικό MX-5 αλλάζοντας τα δεδομένα –ήταν μόλις 955 κιλά– απέδειξε ότι είναι ένα πραγματικά ελαφρύ σπορ αυτοκίνητο.

(BT) The first Mazda MX-5, changing previous achievements - it was just 955 kilos - proved to be a really light sports car.

Likewise, in example 8, manifestation of the preference for specificity ap­pears in the temporal span required for the hood to open (TT8 just 15 seco­nds preferred over less than 20) and rendering the ST8 smart technology metaphor (corporation as a living organism entailing diffuseness) as TT8 advanced technology (corporation as a machine, entailing specificity).


The new MINI Convertible [...] With a sleeker design, go-kart handling and smart technology, it’s ready for next-level open-air adventure. [...] Quick and quiet, the new electrical hood mechanism means you can get a full view in less than 20 seconds.


Το νέο MINI Cabrio [...] Με πιο κομψή εμφάνιση, οδηγική αίσθηση go-kart και προηγμένη τεχνολογία, δηλώνει πανέτοιμο για να προσφέρει μια νέα εμπειρία οδήγησης με ανοικτή οροφή. [...] Γρήγορα και αθόρυβα, ο νέος ηλεκτρικός μηχανισμός ανοίγει την υφασμάτινη οροφή σε μόλις 15 δευτερόλεπτα

(BT) The new MINI Cabrio [...] With a more elegant design, go-kart handling sense and advanced technology, it declares itself to be ready for a new open-roof driving experience. [...] Quickly and quietly, the new electrical mechanism opens the hood in just 15 seconds.

In this context, there are two further shifts which are indicative of a penchant for diffuseness in Greek and which balance the specificity effects. These are TT8 it declares itself to beready for..., assuming the living orga­nism metaphor, and the TT8 go-kart handling sense, which favours the sensual (diffuse) over the specific function (handling). Most other shifts seem to favour diffuseness on the Greek side. This is manifested either by omitting ST specificity markers in the target version (ST9 and ST10) or by adding diffuseness ones. For instance, the organism metaphor thrives in the Greek version of the data. The ST9 nothing they don't [need] entails exactness and specificity.


[The Jeep Renegate] IS A TOP 10 WORLD CAR OF THE YEAR FINALIST 2015 WORLD CAR AWARDS The Jeep® Renegade is an SUV that offers everything a driver needs and nothing they don’t.


-- Το ολοκαίνουργιο Jeep® Renegade σας προσφέρει όλα όσα επιθυμείτε για να απολαύσετε μοναδικές εμπειρίες.

(BT) The brand new Jeep® Renegade offers you all you desire to enjoy unique experiences

Examples 10-12 show diffuseness in the Greek version, either added (TT10, TT11) or compensating for ST diffuseness. TT10 reinforces diffuseness through the organism metaphor (generation). ST11 emotions alludes to diffuseness, as does TT11 charm of genius, but TT11 reinforces the organism representation by including dynamic personality (δυναμική προ­σωπι­κότητα) in the strong features of the product.


AYGO. It's time to play ...


Νέα Γενιά Aygo ...

(BT) New Aygo Generation


Yaris. Amplifies your emotions.
FEATURES. Nine things you didn't know about Toyota hybrids, [...], 2015 Toyota Yaris Review [...], Colour storm [...], Toyota Safety Sense: Lane Departure Alert [...]


Yaris 2016. Η γοητεία της ευφυίας.
ΧΑΡΑΚΤΗΡΙΣΤΙΚΑ. Σημεία Υπεροχής. Ποιότητα εσωτερικού χώρου [...], Δυναμική προσωπικότητα [...], Οδήγηση με 6η αίσθηση, Toyota safety sense [...], Οδηγική απόλαυση [...]

(BT)Yaris 2016. The charm of genius.
FEATURES. Strong points. Interior space quality [...], Dynamic Personality [...], Driving with a 6th sense, Toyota safety sense [...], Drivining pleasure [...]

TT12 road of your heart item (ο δρόμος της καρδιάς σας) renders the diffu­­seness carried by ST12 embrace every moment, while TT12 reinforces the organism metaphor by TT trust (εμπιστοσύνη) and personality (προσω­πικότητα) additions.


The flagship of the Subaru range and all new for 2015, the Outback wears its colours as the world’s first crossover with pride. Outback pioneered a whole new genre back in 1995 as the first car to fuse the practicality of passenger estate with the go anywhere nature of an SUV [...]


Όπου κι αν θέλετε να αποδράσετε, το Outback θα σας πάει με απόλυτη εμπιστοσύνη. Η σχεδίασή του τονίζει την στιβαρή και “σκληραγωγημένη” προσωπικότητά του, ενώ το άνετο εσωτερικό του προσφέρει εκλεπτυσμένα, ανθεκτικά υλικά και φιλική τεχνολογία, που κάνει το ταξίδι αναπαυτικό και χαλαρό, όποιος κι αν είναι ο προορισμός.

Wherever you want to get away, Outback will take you with utmost trust. Its design accentuates its stocky and “hardy” personality, while its comfortable interior offers refined, durable materials and friendly technology, which makes travel enjoyable and relaxed, whatever the destination.

English-Greek automobile advertising seems to favour specificity occasionally, although diffuseness seems to be a dominant value. Although word-count is hard to specify, given the localisation strategies and the fragme­n­tary nature of the data traced, in the fourteen pairs of automobile home­pa­­ges, the data set seems to roughly verify the 82% vs. 45% ratio on the specificity-diffuseness scale.

2.4 Achieved vs. ascribed status

Achievement relates to how much one has done. Ascription is about who one is (family, background etc). The UK is reported to be evenly divided bet­ween achievement and ascription values and much of the rest of the world is ascription-oriented. Korea is 76 percent ascriptive, Japan 70 percent, France 65 percent, and Singapore 60 percent (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 2000). In business and industry, corporations favouring achievement usually have an 'up or out' strategy. Those favouring ascription may be interested in nurturing employees to higher status. Ascri­bed status pairs with small private space focusing on the individual. Ascribed status rather tallies with large private space assuming a more communi­tarian approach.

Example 13 highlights ascribed status attributed to the product by referring to the brand's legendary heritage. Both versions make use of ascribed status in their persuasive strategy, but TT13 enhances ascribed status by the family item. Besides, ST item the legendary Jeep brand heritage appears on a subsidiary page of the UK homepage and is fronted to the main page in the Greek homepage.


Can you see the resemblance? From the iconic seven-slot grille to an SUV with real presence, there's no doubting that the Renegade has Jeep® DNA. [...]
(subsidiary page) Design cues inspired by the legendary Jeep brand heritage are incorporated tastefully throughout.


Η ΠΕΡΙΠΕΤΕΙΑ ΞΕΚΙΝΑ. Άνεση και ασφάλεια, όπου κι αν βρεθείτε.
Το μέλος της οικογένειας είναι Jeep®. Βλέπετε τις ομοιότητες; Από την κλασσική μάσκα με τις επτά γρίλιες μέχρι την ρωμαλέα εξωτερική σχεδίαση, το ολοκαίνουργιο Jeep® Renegade αποπνέει τη θρυλική κληρονομιά της μάρκας Jeep®.

(BT) ADVENTURE BEGINS. Comfort and safety, wherever you are.
The member of the Jeep family. Do you see resemblances? From the classic 'mask' with seven-slot grille to robust exterior design, brand new Jeep® Renegade conveys the legendary heritage of the Jeep brand.

Another occurrence of ascribed status in the Greek version appears in TT6: Swedish luxury assigns the product ascribed status. Ascribed status ma­y nurture public spirit in recipients: one may feel “some obligation to re­turn to the society [...] some recompense for its generosity” (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 2000:198). This ascribed status approach has pro­­ba­bly reinforced the safety concern on the part of the Subaru corporation advertising the Forester car in Greek. In TT14 the safety concern is ad­ded, in TT15 it is simply reinforced, through the TT top priority item in the heading. Besides the company's determination to protect clients is accentuated through TT item [t]here may be dangers in life but we make si­n­ce­re efforts for you and your passengers to be protected, which ensu­res audience that the company is concerned with overcoming obstacles to client security.




ΤΟ ΟΡΑΜΑ ΜΑΣ. Η ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑ ΣΑΣ. Για να σας προστατεύει και να σας βοηθά να αποφεύγετε τα ατυχήματα, το SUBARU XV είναι εξοπλισμένο με ένα συνδυασμό ενεργητικής και παθητικής ασφάλειας.



(BT) OUR VISION. YOUR SAFETY. To protect you and help you avoid accidents, SUBARU XV is equipped with a combination of active and passive safety (features)


New Outback sets the standard for world-class safety. Among a raft of new technology, Subaru’s EyeSight driver assist system acts as a second pair of eyes for the driver to help avoid collisions. Enjoy the ambience of new Outback’s sumptuous cabin which not only boasts every conceivable convenience but reaches new levels of refinement.


Έχοντας επίγνωση της σημασίας που έχει η ακεραιότητα των επιβαινόντων, έχουμε εξοπλίσει το Outback με συστήματα ασφαλείας υψηλής ποιότητας, όπως επτά αερόσακοι SRS [...]. Μπορεί να υπάρχουν κίνδυνοι στη ζωή, όμως κάνουμε ειλικρινείς προσπάθειες για να προστατεύεστε με τον καλύτερο δυνατό τρόπο, εσείς και οι επιβάτες σας.

(BT) SAFETY IS A TOP PRIORITY. Being aware of the significance passengers' integrity carries, we have equipped Outback with high quality safety systems, like 7 airbags [...] There may be dangers in life but we make sincere efforts for you and your passengers to be protected.

Example 16 shows that the Seat-Ibiza TT enhances safety information, by e­nu­merating specific items of safety equipment, whereas the source text groups them together as 'standard and optional assistance features.'


SAFETY - Peace of Mind
The Ibiza doesn't just have all of the safety features you'd expect these days, it also has a whole host of standard and optional assistance systems that make every journey easier and ultimately a lot safer. Complete peace of mind.


ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑ - Περισσότερη ασφάλεια, λιγότερο άγχος
Η ασφάλεια έχει ενισχυθεί με τη χρήση προηγμένης τεχνολογίας που περιλαμβάνει φώτα ημέρας LED, υποβοήθηση στάθμευσης με ηχητική προειδοποίηση και οπίσθια κάμερα ενσωματωμένη στο σύστημα ψυχαγωγίας και πληροφόρησης. Αυτό είναι πραγματικά το πιο ασφαλές μας Ibiza μέχρι τώρα.

(BT) Safety has been reinforced with the use of advanced technology which includes LED daytime running lights parking assist pilot and driver alert and rear view camera embodied in the entertainment and information system This has been our safest Ibiza up until now.

Likewise, in example 17, the Greek version of the Alfa Romeo Julietta shows a similar tendency for providing specific information on safety equip­ment. This is evidenced by the text fragment length dedicated to each sa­fety equipment. Evidently, this seems to be pragmatically 'relevant' in­fo­r­mation, which marketing experts thought the target audience would appreciate.


Safety comes first and foremost in the New Alfa Giulietta, which offers active & passive safety systems: 6 airbags, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Alfa Active Steering with Dynamic Steering Torque.


ΑΣΦΑΛΕΙΑ. Ασφάλεια 5 αστέρων [...46-word text...], Αξιολόγηση 5 αστέρων στο Euro NCAP [...94-word text...], Ενεργητική ασφάλεια [...15-word text...], Παθητική ασφάλεια [...82-word text...], Προληπτική ασφάλεια [...49-word text...]

(BT) SAFETY. 5-star safety [46-word text], 5-star assessment at Euro NCAP [94-word text], Active safety [15-word text], Passive safety [82-word text], Preventive safety [49-word text]

Concern for heightening specificity on safety also appears in the Greek ver­­­sion of the Renault Clio homepage (repeated below as ST/TT1', with the relevant items highlighted). The TT adds the award-winning information (which points to individualism) to major ascription.


CLIO. Inspired by passion. BE MOVED, NOT DRIVEN. The Renault Clio makes hearts beat faster. EXPLORE CLIO.
An object of desire [...], Efficient engines [...], Connect your world [...], Length, height, width [...].


CLIO. Ανακαλύψτε το.
Χρώματα [...], Έντυπα [...], Εντυπωσιακή σχεδίαση [...], Πρακτικό και φιλικό [...], Κινητήρες με τεχνολογική υπεροχή [...], Multimedia [...], 5 Εuro αστέρων NCAP [...], Εκδόσεις & Εξοπλισμός [...] Εξατομίκευση [...], Ασφάλεια [Ολοκληρωμένη ασφάλεια. Το Renault Clio βραβεύτηκε με 5 αστέρια στα τεστ EuroNCAP αποδεικνύοντας το ολοκληρωμένο επίπεδο ασφάλειας που διαθέτει.]

(BT) CLIO. Discover it.
Colours [...], Promotional material [...], Impressive design [...] Practical and friendly, Technologically superior engines [...] Multimedia [...] 5-star Euro NCAP [...], Versions and Equipment [...], Customisation [...] Safety [Integrated safety. Renault Clio was awarded 5-stars at the EuroNCAP, proving the integrated safety system it provides.]

Example 18 shows ascribed status concern in both ST and TT, but manifested through different ascribed status features. Beyond publicspirited a­wa­­re­­ness, which is highlighted in the concern for the environment in the Greek homepage of the Nissan corporation (TT18), the Nissan-Pulsar ho­me­page highlights “relationships of trust, integrity, and reputation for fair dealing” (2000:198). Relationships of trust is another feature of ascribed sta­­tus approaches.


When buying a Nissan, you buy more than just a car – you buy a care package that makes ownership pleasurable […]
Find out what’s happening at Nissan with our online newsletter […]


Φιλική προς το περιβάλλον παραγωγή των οχημάτων της Nissan/ Επαναχρησιμοποίηση, Ανακύκλωση, Ανάκτηση/ Τεχνική έγκριση για την πώληση οχημάτων της Nissan/ Επεξεργασία & αποσυναρμολόγηση χρησιμοποιημένων οχημάτων/ Μπαταρίες

Environment-friendly vehicle production/ Reuse, recycling, repossession/ Technical approval for Nissan vehicle selling/ Reprocessing and disassembling used cars/ Batteries

Likewise, Mitsubishi corporation brings up their promise to customers in ST19 elaborating on it in terms of a 75-word fragment. The Greek version resorts to responsibility for the environment and corporation heritage, whi­­ch are also ascription values.


Explore the history of Mitsubishi Motors from the first vehicle that went into production in 1917 up to the current day and have a look at our strategic partnerships we are involved with. [...]
OUR PROMISE TO YOU [...75-word fragment...]



(BT) OUR DUTY TOWARDS THE ENVIRONMENT [63-word fragment elaborating on this]
A GLORIOUS HERITAGE - BECAUSE CAR RACING IS IN OUR BLOOD [78-word fragment elaborating on this]

There seem to be ascription-driven tasks in commercial material transfer, realised differently in source and target environments. Trust may be taken for granted in Greek, so it is replaced with concern for the environment, which is less directly interpersonal.

2.5 Inner direction vs. outer direction

In business and industry, inner directed leaders “must override the opinions of those around” them (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 2000: 255). If they choose to listen to subordinates, they are outer directed. As stereotypical as it might seem, Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars argue that “East Asian authority figures become chief listeners to the petitions, requests, and initiatives of their subordinates. [...] To be outer directed is to be mature, responsive, and nurturing” (2000:255). In fact, inner direction seems to pair with individualism and achievement (all hard-oriented approaches to value dilemmas), whereas outer direction is more aware of the contribution of others and the environment or fate, as communitari­anism and ascribed status are (soft-oriented approaches to value dilem­mas). Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars measure inner/outer direction by questions highlighting the advantages of self-determination and inner control vs. “the advantages of contingency, luck, fate, and circumstance” (2000:238). Example 1, which is repeated here as 1'', highlights the value of luck on the UK website, which disappears from the Greek TT.


CLIO. Inspired by passion. BE MOVED, NOT DRIVEN.
The Renault Clio makes hearts beat faster. EXPLORE CLIO.
[...]. Some cars are born with all the luck], [...].

The concept of fate also appears in Greek, on the Subaru Forester home­page, as shown in TT20.


Balanced design for a balanced life. [...]





The Greek data provide quite a few instances of outer-directed communication. For instance, the addition made to TT15 highlighting the compa­ny's responsibility for client security shows awareness of potential dangers in life (awareness of the environment, fate etc.) and displays a modest, ra­­ther than confident, presentation of sincere efforts the Subaru corpora­tion is making to protect driver and passengers.

Outer-directed cultures are in touch with the living environment, which they study carefully. The Greek version of the Jeep Renegate website (TT 21) provides instances of this outer direction tendency. The link with the environment is elaborated in Greek.


A world of adventure stands before us. Begin your journey in a car that is equipped for almost anything. The Jeep® Renegade is an SUV that offers everything a driver needs [...].


Σ' ένα κόσμο γεμάτο συναρπαστικούς προορισμούς που περιμένουν να τους ανακαλύψετε για να ζήσετε την αληθινή περιπέτεια, χρειάζεστε ένα όχημα που είναι έτοιμο σχεδόν για όλα. [...] Αναζητάτε την μαγευτική αίσθηση της επαφής με τον ανοικτό ουρανό και την ύπαιθρο; Μπορεί­τε να την απολαύσετε στο ολοκαίνουργιο Jeep® Renegade.

In a world full of exquisite destinations which are waiting for you to discover them in order for you to live a true adventure, you need a vehicle which is up to everything [...] Do you seek the wonderful sense of contact with an open sky and outdoor space? You can enjoy this with the brand new Jeep® Renegade.

This outer-directed approach is very often realised in that the Greek version occasionally brings up the issue of safety, or simply reinforces the references made to safety in the TT (as shown above, 2.4). Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) seem to relate the concept of safety to outer-/inner-directness.

2.6 Sequential time vs. synchronous time

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) refer to two conceptions of time prevalent in Chinese and ancient Greek mythology (personified in two mythical figures Chronos and Kairos): linear time, conceptualised as a thread, “joining the past to the present and stretching out into an interminable future” (2000:296), and winding or circular time, where “cycles of gro­w­th and decay, birth and death, springtime and autumn promised a har­mony with nature and perpetual regeneration” (ibid).

They also argue that short-term orientation in cultural values tie with the con­ception of sequential time (as if what is lost in the present is lost forever), whereas long-term orientation pairs with synchronous time concep­tion (“the seeds planted now will bear fruit continuously in future years” 2000:299). This future orientation may be traced in the Daihatsu Group Slogan “Innovation for Tomorrow.” As the com­pany became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Toyota, so the Daihatsu corporation thanks its custo­mers for using their “contents for a long time.” The advertising data sam­ple in Sidiropoulou 2008b did not provide evidence of synchronous time in the Greek version as contrasted to sequential time in English; it was tentati­vely inferred through other generic evidence that Greek appreciates long-term orientation vs. a rather short-term orientation in English. Exam­ple 22 in this study seems to provide a manifestation of a diversified ap­pro­ach to the dilemma 'sequential vs. synchronous' time.

Translational shifts in the data which show preference for one conception of time over another are extremely rare in the data sample. Example 22, a Mazda-MX-5 promotional material fragment offers such a shift. Going back to its roots seems to assume a linear conceptualisation, sequential time, whereas mountaining/climaxing (μεσουράνημα) draws on the solar curve, on the sky, and assumes a cyclical conception of time. TT22 revival (ανα­γέννηση) also assumes cyclical time, as the revival of seasons does.


Going back to its roots, all-new Mazda MX-5 embodies everything this iconic car is famous for and more. Experience outstanding agility and driving dynamics combined with thrilling rear wheel drive, whilst enjoying the latest in-car connectivity.


Στη δεκαετία του 1980, κανένας πια δεν κατασκεύαζε roadster. Το μεσουράνημά τους κατά τις δεκαετίες '50 και '60 στη Βρετανία, έμοιαζε να έχει παρέλθει οριστικά, έως ότου η Mazda εμφανίστηκε στο προσκήνιο. [...] Αυτή ήταν η αναγέννηση των roadster. Greece/Mazda-Heritage/The-MX-5-1989

(BT)In the 1980s no one made roadsters. Their mountaining/climaxing in the 1950s and 1960s in Britain seemed to have gone forever, until Mazda appeared on stage. [...] This was the revival of roadsters.

In examining these hard/soft approaches to selling, the study focused on values mediators chose to highlight, with reference to content. It rather ne­g­­lected values which have been inscribed in the linguistic system in Greek, contributing to one or another value of the Hampden-Turner and Trom­pe­naars framework. For instance, Greek is a positive politeness language (Brown and Levinson 1978/1987, Sifianou 1992), which at least in some genres favours interpersonal proximity (e.g. All Bases Covered. We want you to love every minute of driving your SEAT,translated as Σας κα­λύπ­τουμε. Θέλουμε να νιώθετε όμορφα και άνετα κοντά μας(Wecoveryou. We want you to feel nice and comfortable close to us).

4. Summary of findings: creativity, translation and new economies

Value shifts are summarised in Table 2. The bullet (•) stands for instances of hard-approach values, the circle (o) stands for soft-approach values in entrepreneurial communication with client.

Findings show that both the hard-sell and the soft-sell approach are reinforced on the Greek homepages. The ratio between hard- and soft-sell approach items in English is 1 hard/4.3 soft, whereas in Greek the hard-sell approach is higher (1 hard/2.7 soft). The finding that Greek versions of automobile in­du­stry web texts favour hard-sell values in the communication with clie­nts is a manifestation of the translators' creative mediation, namely, their po­ten­tial to holistically integrate into discourse their awareness of what an appropriate approach to cultural diversity might be, in communication.

The study drew on authentic parallel advertising data in automobile industry, focusing on the English-Greek language pair. It accounted for transla­tion shifts between the English and Greek homepages of fourteen Western-/Easter-origin automobile industries, in terms of a model of values preferred in building a corporation cross-culturally (Hampden-Turner and Trom­penaars 2000). It highlighted the contribution automobile industry parallel data may make to enhancing understanding of divergent thinking as a manifestation of creative processes required in website translation.

Sidiropoulou Table 2

Table 2. Value distribution in translational shifts of examples 1-23.

Although a critical approach to the Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars model could rightly identify potentially overgeneralising and perhaps simpli­­stic categorisation of values and attitudes in building a corporation, the study shows that an intercultural perspective into authentic data cannot af­ford to neglect the contribution of relevant value dilemmas to analysing cross-cultural interaction between industry and client.

The argument for supporting the creative industry sector is that “we can no longer afford to understand the social and creative disciplines as commer­­cially irrelevant, merely 'civilizing' activities” (Cunningham 2005:293). Science and technology seem to have to make room for creativity and the “culturalization of economic life” (Flew 2005:384). In this view, nations “need to invest in creative human capital throughout the economy” (Venturelli 2005:396). The data set highlights the link between values and pro­gre­ss, geography and culture, culture and institutions (Harrison 2000: xxiv).

In a context where interdisciplinarity prevails and creative industries increasingly need different competences in professionals to boost their pote­ntial for growth, translation competence is a crucial area of expertise whi­ch enhances communication channels between content owners and consumers. This is done by tailoring advertising campaigns to local consumer needs and tastes.

Translation seems to be an occupation which assumes high creative intensity and can sustain growth in national economies. For instance, if adver­ti­sing and marketing has already been a promising creative economy group, translation can reinforce this potential for growth. Within the new eco­nomy paradigm, translation is dynamic, global, networked, service-oriented occupation, drawing on human and social capital, a knowledge/ in­no­vation-based activity where the importance of research and innovation is high.

The present study used the anthropological and commercial understanding of culture (Venturelli 2005), rather the artistic one, to show that no matter what source and target societal value measurement may suggest, particular sectors seem to have their own value balancing, which assumes a creative perspective to translational advertising. Such findings need further attention for a whole lot of beneficiaries (government, business, aca­de­mia and research institutions).

In fact, translation is ubiquitous to all sectors of creative industries, whether heritage art, media and functional creation. For instance, the English-Greek paradigm has shown that in the heritage sector, Greek-English tou­rism advertising shows that different cosmopolitan dimensions are favou­red across English and Greek tourism discourse (Kefala and Sidiro­pou­lou 2016), which assumes high creative intensity. In the field of the arts, sta­ge translation is a rich resource for growth and exporting culture. Trans­lation in the media is an additional layer of mediation process which is worth exploring both in academia and in media institutions for ideo­logical and cultural reasons. Whatever the creative industry sector, tran­sla­tion can boost exports of goods, whether performed by in-house em­plo­yees or translation agencies.

Translation products are creative goods to be included in official statistics on creative industries. Measuring productivity and creative intensity should probably take into account task complexity as perceived and studied in academia. It is a task requiring cultural imagination allowing a 'se­n­sible' manipulation of values. The task encompasses translation compe­tence and creativity, it extends from “learning how to act in already stru­ctured situations, and how to respond to situations which are relatively unstructured” (Negus and Pickering 2004:19).

Translation research could also be of service to other growth sustaining disciplines. For instance, it could reveal, perspectives on the value of conse­rvation (of cultural/natural heritage) across cultures, broadening the mu­­l­­­ti­­disciplinary approach of scholars studying the economics of heritage and conservation (De la Torre 2002). The bilingual automobile data set in this study shows that concern for the environment may be treated differently across cultures.

Technological advances heighten, rather than mitigate, the need for appro­priacy in translation. Trans­lation should probably be subsumed under tho­se creative industries whose intensity is increasing. The assumpti­on is that as more product or service diversity is advertised on the web, the mo­re variability will occur in the parameters affecting translation per­for­mance.

If entrepreneurial attitude has been found to explain growth differentials in 54 European countries (Beugelsdijk and Niels Noorderhaven 2003), and these attitudes are shown to be reflected in commercial advertising, the as­ssu­mption is that regional variability is to be taken into account in enhancing the potential and effectiveness of the creative economy.

Out of the creative industries inventory, the study has focused on 'creative services', namely, digital advertising. The study intended to enhance under­standing of creative processes in translational advertising practices and associated innovation with the social awareness required for the task. Taylor abjures the “asocial approach to creative industries often presented in public policy and which becomes replicated in the kinds of initiatives that are designed to support it” (Taylor 2011:45). If “there exists a disparity in the content and quality of entrepreneurship education programmes on offer” (Penaluna and Penaluna 2011:66), social awareness in translational advertising would complement entrepreneurship education programmes.

Today, the creative industries are among the most dynamic sectors in the world economy providing new opportunities for developing countries. Transferring growth and heightening demand. Universities are assumed to orient students towards integration of acquired skills, thus ensuring a better match between supply of skills and demands of the labour market. Enhancing awareness of intercultural diversity in commercial environments is one of the services education can contribute to the general obje­ctive of supporting creative industries.

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Sidiropoulou Maria Sidiropoulou is Professor of Translation Studies (2006-) and Head of the Department of English Language and Literature, School of Philosophy, University of Athens (Dec. 2017-).  She was president of the Interuniversity and Interfaculty Co-ordina­ting Co­m­mittee of the Translation-Translatology MA Programme of the University of Athens, in 2009-2011 and director of the Language and Linguistics Department of the Faculty of English in 2004-2006. Her recent publications (books, co-/edited volumes, articles) deal with intercultural issues manifested through translation in the press, in advertising, in EU documentation, in literature, in academic discourse, on stage and screen. She is founding member of the META-FRASEIS/ΜΕΤΑ-ΦΡΑΣΕΙΣ translation Programme


Note 1:
I would like to thank the Special Account Research Fund (ELKE) of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens for funding this research.
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Note 2:
See also the Seat-Ibiza Accessories Section where the fall in love item (IBIZA=ORGANISM) is abandoned:
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ACCESSORIES - Yours by Design
So you've already fallen in love with the Ibiza, but to make it the perfect fit for your life, you can choose from a wide range of clever car accesso­ries.

ΑΞΕΣΟΥΑΡ - Σχεδιασμός στα μέτρα σας
Κάντε το Ibiza σας ακόμη πιο ταιριαστό σε εσάς προσθέτοντάς του τα αγαπημένα σας αξεσουάρ. Μία ευρεία γκάμα επιλογών σας επιτρέπει να προσαρμόσετε το SEAT Ibiza σύμφωνα με τα γούστα σας. ...
(BT) Make Ibiza even more fit for you adding your favourite accessories. A wide range of choices allows you adjust SEAT Ibiza according to taste....